Diacritic Markings

Church Slavonic makes extensive use of diacritic markings. The diacritic markings indicate pronunciation and grammatical information about words. Almost every Church Slavonic word contains at least one diacritic mark. Here is a table of diacritic markings and their meanings and usages.

Diacritic Name Usage
<zv/atel'co> (voicing) This is a decorative mark borrowed from Greek that appears over a vowel if the vowel is the first letter of a word. This mark does not have any effect on the pronunciation or meaning of the word.
<oKS/ia> (acute accent)
D'jachenko spells this <okse>
This mark appears over vowels at the beginning or in the middle of a word and indicates that the vowel should be stressed.
<var/ia> (grave accent) This mark appears over vowels that are the last letter of a word and indicates that the vowel should be stressed.
<kam/ora> (circumflex) This mark appears over vowels in plural and dual forms of a word and indicates that the vowel should be stressed. It is used to distinguish plural forms from singular forms that have the same spelling.
</iso> D'jachenko gives this as a variant of <\iko> This mark is a combination of the voicing mark and the acute accent. It is used when a vowel at the beginning of a word should be stressed.
</apostrof"> This mark is a combination of the voicing mark and the grave accent. I have seen this used mostly in one-letter words and in pronouns to distinguish plural forms from singular forms that have the same spelling.
<kr/atkaja> This mark indicates a vowel of short duration. I have seen this only over the letter <izhe>.
<kav/yka> This mark is quite rare. It comes in pairs and appears to act as some kind of a delimiter. I have no idea what it means.
<er/ok"> This mark is an abbreviation for the letter <jer"> (the hard sign). It is placed above and slightly to the right of the previous character. It is not used often and seems to be used mostly after the letters <dobro> and <zemlja>.
<t/itlo> (plural: <t/itla>) This mark indicates an abbreviation. It is placed over one of the letters of the abbreviated word. It is also used over the next-to-last digit of Church Slavonic numerals.
<slovot/itlo> This is another form of titlo. One of the omitted letters is written under the titlo. The more common of these titla are , , and .

Questions

What are the exact rules of usage for </apostrof">?

What is the <kav/yka> used for?

Is the <kr/atkaja< ever used other than with the letter <izhe>? What exactly does it do to the pronunciation?

When is <erok"> used? What rules or historical circumstances govern its use? (Why is it used so infrequently? Why bother to abbreviate a hard sign? Was it just for decorative purposes?)


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